A level Philosophy & Ethics

What is A level Philosophy & Ethics about?

The A level course covers three main areas: philosophy, ethics, and development of Christian thought. The philosophy module is a chance to sink your teeth into some of the knottier problems of human existence, from the platonic forms through to the problem of evil. Ethics ranges from metaethical questions about what we even mean by good and evil, all the way through to the practical application of normative theories to challenging issues such as euthanasia and sexual ethics. 

The development in Christian thought component is the most explicitly theological of the three, requiring pupils to wrestle with the ancient Christian tradition and how it has defined and expressed itself over the centuries, taking in the Confessions of Augustine through to the gritty realism of Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

All three of these components are interwoven so that they all provide insights into each other as we work our way through the course. The result is a challenging but fascinating exploration of these disciplines where pupils can sharpen their analytical skills and take a rigorous but open minded approach to some of the most enduring questions in the human story.


The A level (with OCR) has a tripartite structure consisting of, Philosophy, Ethics and Developments in Christian Thought (DCT). 


The Philosophy component of the course which is broad in nature but plumbs the depths of many issues in the discipline. These include:

  • Rational argumentation
  • Ontology - the study of the nature of being and existence
  • Metaphysics - looking at the nature of reality
  • Epistemology - asking questions about the nature and means of knowledge (if indeed, any knowledge is possible)
  • Analytical philosophy - the study of language and how it shapes our conceptual categories
  • The nature of religious experience
  • Arguments for the existence of God

We will engage with some of the great names of philosophy, predominantly from the Western tradition, all the way from the Pre-Socratics such as Heraclitus, through Plato and Aristotle, on into the great medieval minds of Al-Ghazali, Maimonides, Boethius, Anselm and Aquinas, and beyond to the modern and postmodern thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Michel Foucault and many more.

As the etymology of the name suggests, philosophy should give you a love of wisdom and competency in examining ideas that have shaped the world, both empathetically and critically.


The Ethics component of the course offers pupils the opportunity to explore in a metacognitive manner the ways in which we think about right and wrong. Building on key influential normative theories in ethics, the course progresses to look at issues in ethics such as those surrounding business and human sexuality. There are also modules that look at metaethics, an area of ethics that asks questions about the very nature of ethical language and discussion. A few areas included in the ethical components of the course are:

  • Kantian ethics
  • Natural Law Theory
  • Utilitarianism from Bentham through to Singer
  • Business ethics
  • Euthanasia
  • Metaethics
  • Issues surrounding conscience as a basis for moral decision making

The interdisciplinary nature of both ethical and philosophical thought means that aspects of psychology and sociology are also taken into account as we consider theories of conscience from the likes of John Henry Newman and Sigmund Freud as well as medieval theologians such as Thomas Aquinas. For anyone who wants to wrestle with some of the difficult questions surrounding human morality and moral decision making, this is a fantastic opportunity.

Developments in Christian Thought (DCT)

The third element of the course is the more explicitly theological section though it is not the study of religions approach that some will be used to from GCSE though it can incorporate skills from this.

The course focuses on particular issues within Christian theology, sometimes with a narrower focus on how they have been perceived by particular theologians, at other times taking a broader approach. Some of the areas we cover are below:

  • The influence of St Augustine on views of human nature
  • Christology - Who was Jesus of Nazareth?
  • Christian moral teaching and action with particular reference to the life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  • Knowledge of God and life after death
  • Christianity, other world religions and secularism
  • Christianity, gender and liberation

It is important to note that all three sections of the course interrelate and understanding from each component can be used to inform understanding of other aspects of the course.

The course is examined in its three components. There is no coursework but three exams, each with three essays each two hours long.

Prerequisites and preparation for the course

There are no official prerequisites for A level Philosophy and Ethics. You do not need to have taken GCSE Religious Studies and indeed, the A level is very different in content and structure from the GCSE.

There are many ways that you can prepare for A level studies however. Here are a few books and resources that are helpful in helping you prepare for, and expand your understanding of, the course:


  • Philosophy
    • A Brief History of Western Philosophy by Anthony Kenny
    • An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion by Michael Wilkinson
    • Think by Simon Blackburn
    • Philosophy: The Basics by Nigel Warburton
  • Ethics
    • Ethics: A Very Short Introduction by Simon Blackburn
    • Being Good by Simon Blackburn
    • Beginning Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy by Lewis Vaughn
  • Developments in Christian Thought
    • Christian Theology: An Introduction by Alistair McGrath
    • Confessions by St Augustine
    • The Bible (especially the New Testament)
  • Other Resources
    • Historical Theology for Everyone, Ryan Reeves’ YouTube channel
    • Institute of Art and Ideas
    • Closer to Truth
    • Capturing Christianity

Exam Board


Entry Criteria

Pupils need not have taken the Religious Studies GCSE, but they should have secured a grade 6 or above in an essay writing subject at GCSE level.

For American Program pupils: two years of English, maintaining at least a B+ average.

Career Pathways

  • Academic Theology and Philosophy
  • Law
  • Humanitarian work
  • Journalism